The following 11 English-language awards receive individual entries in this volume: ARTHUR C.CLARKE AWARD; BRITISH SCIENCE FICTION AWARD; HUGO; INTERNATIONAL FANTASY AWARD; JOHN W.CAMPBELL AWARD; JOHN W.CAMPBELL MEMORIAL AWARD; NEBULA; PHILIP K.DICK AWARD; PILGRIM AWARD; THEODORE STURGEON MEMORIAL AWARD; and WRITERS OF THE FUTURE CONTEST. Awards given exclusively for fantasy or horror, such as the August Derleth, Bram Stoker, British Fantasy, Crawford, Gandalf, Gryphon, Mythopoeic and World Fantasy awards do not receive entries, and nor generally do awards based in countries other than the UK and USA: the sheer proliferation of awards has necessitated this chauvinist ruling. Thus we do not list individually the Ditmar (an Australian award given to novels, stories, fanzines), the William Atheling Jr Award (Australian award given to criticism), the Prix Jules Verne (French award given to novels in the spirit of Jules VERNE; discontinued in 1980), the Prix Apollo (French award given since 1972 to best sf novel published in France, regardless of whether it is French or translated), the Prix Rosny aine (best sf in French), the Seiun (Japanese award for novels and stories, both Japanese and foreign), the Aurora (known until 1991 as the Casper; Canadian sf in both English and French), the Gigamesh (award given by Spanish bookshops for sf in Spanish and translation), European Science Fiction Award (given at annual Eurocon), Kurd Lasswitz Award (German equivalent of the Nebula), SFCD-Literaturpreis (given by large German fan club), Nova Science Fiction (Italian), Atorox (Finnish) and many others. Other awards, such as the Balrog, the James Blish and the Jupiter, have not received the necessary administrative and/or public support and have been short-lived. There are many fan awards largely given to professionals, like the HUGO. There are others given by fans to fans; those that most strikingly demonstrate fannish generosity are awards like DUFF and TAFF (Down Under Fan Fund and Trans Atlantic Fan Fund) for which it actually costs money to vote. The winner has his or her expenses paid to a foreign CONVENTION each year, from Australia to the USA or vice versa (DUFF) and from Europe (usually the UK) to the USA or vice versa (TAFF). The most important awards not given a full entry are the Locus Awards, winners of a poll in 13 categories announced each September by LOCUS and voted on by about 1000 presumably well informed readers. This represents a constituency of voters about the same size as that for the Hugos (sometimes bigger). The overlap between Locus voting and Hugo voting a month later is large, which is why we do not list the lesser-known award separately. Where the awards differ, it is often thought that the Locus assessment is the more accurate reflection of general reading tastes. The Locus Award is not only good for vanity and sales: in recent years it has taken a very attractive form in perspex and metal. Among the remaining awards, the following are too specialist, recent or small-scale to warrant full entries: Big Heart (sponsored by Forrest J.ACKERMAN for services to FANDOM), Chesley Award (sf artwork, given by the Association of Science Fiction and Fantasy Artists), Compton Crook/Stephen Tall Memorial Award (Baltimore-based award for best first novel), Davis Awards (voted on by readers of Analog and ISAAC ASIMOV'S SCIENCE FICTION MAGAZINE) renamed the Dell Awards in 1992 when Davis sold out its two sf magazines to Dell, First Fandom Awards (retrospective awards for services to sf prior to institution of the Hugos), James Tiptree Jr Award (from March 1992, given at Wiscon, the Wisconsin convention, for sf or fantasy fiction that best "explores or expands gender roles", J.Lloyd Eaton Award (from 1979, for a work of sf criticism), Pioneer Award (given by the SCIENCE FICTION RESEARCH ASSOCIATION from 1990 for best critical essay of the year about sf), Prometheus Award (sponsored by the Libertarian Futurist Society for best "libertarian" sf), Readercon Small Press Awards (inaugurated 1989 for best work in various sf categories published by small presses), Rhysling Award (sf POETRY), SFBC Award (chosen by members of the US SCIENCE FICTION BOOK CLUB), Saturn Awards (sf/fantasy film and tv work, given by the Academy of Science Fiction, Fantasy and Horror Films), SFBC Awards given by the Science Fiction Book Club in the US according to a popularity poll among the members, the Turner Tomorrow Award, and the William L.Crawford Memorial Award (given by the International Association for the Fantastic in the Arts for a first novel in the fantasy field). The Turner Tomorrow Award is a literary competition with an unbelievable $500,000 first prize sponsored by broadcasting magnate Ted Turner, for best original sf-novel manuscript to be published in hardcover by Turner Publishing and containing practical solutions to world problems; when the initial winner, Daniel QUINN, was announced in June 1991, three of the judges, including novelist William Styron, declared their dismay at so huge a sum going to the winner of a contest in which none of the place-getters was, in their view, especially distinguished. The best reference on the subject is Reginald's Science Fiction and Fantasy Awards: A Comprehensive Guide to the Awards and their Winners (1991) by Daryl F.MALLETT and Robert REGINALD.

Science Fiction and Fantasy Encyclopedia. . 2011.

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